Your Millennial View Matters

Though controversial and debated, any study of eschatology worth your time must include an examination of the views of the millennium. So to set the stage for a brief overview of these views we must examine the passage dealing with the millennium most explicitly, Revelation 20.

“Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding in his hand the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain. And he seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and threw him into the pit, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he might not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were ended. After that he must be released for a little while. Then I saw thrones, and seated on them were those to whom the authority to judge was committed. Also I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection! Over such the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years. And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea” (Revelation 20:1-8).

Throughout the history of the Church there have largely been three positions concerning the millennium. Among the many distinctives these positions hold the chief distinctive (from which these positions derive their name) is when the second coming of Christ will occur. For the Premillennial it will occur before the millennium, for the Postmillennial it will occur after the millennium, and for the Amillennial, well there is no literal millennium, but we’ll get to that in a moment.


The Premillennial position has not always assumed the same form throughout Church history, so there is a need to distinguish between Historic Premillennialism and Dispensational Premillennialism.

Historic Premillennialism believes Christ’s kingdom began after the ascension of Christ with the work of the apostles. They call this first phase the Church age. In this age the Church of Christ will be successful in many ways but will ultimately fail in its mission and succumb to complete apostasy. This fall into apostasy will be a steady decline as history progresses toward the end of the Church age. After this Church age the great tribulation will begin, which marks the beginning of the end times or last days. During this great tribulation believers will suffer greatly from the antichrist and unbelief will reign on the earth. After the tribulation is over Jesus will return to rapture His Church away and reward the righteous. Jesus will then descend to earth with His glorified Church, fight the battle of Armageddon, defeat Satan, and bind him for 1,000 years. This thousand year period is the millennium in which Jesus will set up His kingdom in full measure on the earth from Jerusalem. At the end of this millennium Satan will be freed from his bonds, he will deceive the nations, but he will ultimately and finally be defeated by God’s wrathful judgment. It is this moment of final judgment where God will also judge the wicked and rescue the Church fully and forever.

Dispensational Premillennialism is a different belief system. The term was coined in the mid 19th century by Lewis Sperry Chafer, Finnis Dake, C.I. Scofield, and other various theologians. This system is known for two things. First, a belief that redemptive history is separated into varying dispensations where God deal with His people in different ways. Second, there is a sharp distinction between Israel and the Church as two separate peoples with two separate promises from God. To the dispensationalist, all of the Old Testament prophecies about Israel will be fulfilled in the current Jewish geo-political nation state of Israel. They believe the entire Old Testament sacrificial system will be reinstituted in a rebuilt temple in Jerusalem.

In the dispensational view, Christ’s kingdom is entirely future and comes after the church age, whereas in the historic view Christ’s kingdom began after the ascension. In lines up with the historic view at this point when it says the Church will be successful in many ways but will ultimately fail in its mission and succumb to complete apostasy as history progresses toward the end of the Church age. At this point most dispensationalists believe the rapture will occur to remove the Church from the world before the tribulation begins so they won’t have to face such turmoil. I say ‘most’ because some believe the rapture not be here but will occur in the middle of the tribulation, while others believe it will occur after the tribulation. All dispensationalists divide the tribulation into two equal periods of three and a half years. The first three and a half year period called the tribulation, is where the antichrist is revealed. The latter three and a half year period called the great tribulation, is where the antichrist will take up power, persecute what’s left of the Church, set up his own kingdom, and sit down to rule and be worshiped in the Jerusalem temple. After this seven year tribulation Jesus will return, destroy the antichrist, bind Satan, and set up his kingdom and will reign on the earth for 1,000 years. After this millennium Satan will be released, he will attack vigorously, but Jesus will call down judgment from heaven and destroy His enemies. Then the final judgment will occur.

This is the most popular millennial view in the Church today, probably due to the mass production and popularity of end times material published throughout the past generation, culminating in the Left Behind novels and movies.


In contrast to the Premillennial position the Amillennial position believes Christ’s kingdom began with the first coming of Christ. This time we’re now in is synonymous with the end times or last days. This reveals one of important underlying foundational beliefs, namely, that the 1,000 year millennium spoken of in Revelation 20 isn’t a literal thousand years, but the time where Christ is ruling and reigning between His two advents. This is why the label, coined in the early 20th century, begins with ‘a’. For the amil believer there is no millennium, because we’re in the symbolic millennium now and have been for almost 2,000 years already. There is also a large covenantal, as opposed to dispensational, view of redemptive history where there is no distinction or separation between Israel and the Church in regard to the promises made by God to His people. Amillennialism sees the Church as the fulfillment of Israel. This new and true Israel of God is made up of all believers. “It is not an ethnically, politically, geographically defined people any longer. It has no geographic center. It has no single ethnic identity. It is not a political nation state. It has no system of sacrificing animals, no tabernacle, no succession of priests, no divinely authorized feast days, no requirement of circumcision or dietary particulars. All of these Old Testament patterns were temporary. Jesus has fulfilled them and ended them” (John Piper). And it will not ever return to these things any time in the future. Though these beliefs are prominent in the Amillennial view, the view does leave an opening for Jews to return to Christ in the end. There are varying opinions on this within the amil camp but it is agreed upon that if they’re to return to Him they will come to Him by faith alone.

As to how the Amillennial believes redemptive history will play itself out, here’s the structure. Satan was bound during the earthly ministry of Jesus, and where the gospel is preached and embraced Satan’s influence is held at bay. Believers, therefore, have a true impact on this world and even on the culture in which they live. But they will not ultimately transform the culture. Because, like the premil position, Amillennialism believes the Church will succumb to apostasy, grow in evil, and listen to the antichrist in the very end of days. But Christ will return once to end history, raise the dead, judge all men, and usher in His kingdom in full measure in the New Heavens and New Earth, which is a glorified earth. 


Postmillennialism is very similar to Amillennialism and very different from Premillennialism. Rather than seeing the second coming of Christ as coming before the millennium, the postmil position sees the second coming of Christ after the millennium. In regard to the millennium most postmils believe it to symbolic while a few believe it will be a literal thousand year period. The Postmillennial view believes Christ’s kingdom began with the first coming of Christ and that the time we’re now in is synonymous with the end times or last days. It holds to a covenantal view of redemptive history along with the Amillenial view, and sees the New Testament Church as the fulfillment of Old Testament Israel. You may ask, what then is the difference between the amil and postmil views? There is one large difference that has been the one distinguishing belief of the postmil position that sets it apart from all the others. While both the premil and amil believers think the great commission will ultimately fail and that the Church will fall into apostasy, the postmil believer thinks the great commission will succeed and that the Church, though persecuted at times, will win in the end. So much so, that by the time of Jesus’ second coming the earth will be Christianized.


So we have Premillennialism, Amillennialism, and Postmillennialism. These three views have been and likely will continue to be hotly debated within the Church. I hope you can see that with each position comes not only a view on what the millennium is all about in Revelation 20, but how one ought to approach, interpret, and apply the whole of God’s Word to the whole of God’s people today.

After my own study I have come to embrace the Amillennial position, because I think this view not only has the most evidence throughout Scripture, I think this view is the only one of these views present in Scripture. I do think Premillennialism has an over exaggerated view of the nation of Israel as well as a thorough misunderstanding of how the two Testaments relate to one another. I also admit, I want Postmillennialism to be true! But I don’t see evidence for an ultimate triumph by the Church throughout the world. I see great things for the Church, but I also see great error in the Church as well as the rise of unbelief in our world.

So, for better or for worse I am an Amillennial.

I say this fully convinced but knowing I may be truly wrong about this. Many of the theologians I admire and have learned much from hold to views I don’t. One thing is 100% sure, God did not inspire His Word in order to give us options of belief about Him and His ways in the world. Whatever position you hold, hold it strongly with deep conviction. Panmillennialism, the belief that it will all ‘pan out’ in the end is not an available option.

The Time, Manner, and Purpose of the Second Coming

In Acts 1:9-11 we find the following words, “As when He had said these things, as they were looking on, He was lifted up, and a cloud took Him out of their sight. And while they were gazing into heaven as He went, behold, two men stood by them in white robes, and said, ‘Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw Him go into heaven.’”

In this passage we find the promise of the second coming, or the second advent, of Christ. “This Jesus” as the angels in white robes said, will return Himself in the same visible way He left. How did He leave? With a sense of awe and wonder. He was taken up in a cloud of glory and He will come again in a cloud of glory. This is why Matthew in 24:27 can say of the return of Christ, “For as the lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.” Yet in spite of such a rich and comforting promise Jesus warned that His return would be a controversial matter. In the beginning of His famous Olivet discourse given to us in Matthew 24 we read, “As He sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” And Jesus answered them, “See that no one leads you astray. For many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and they will lead many astray” (Matthew 24:3-6).

So what will the second coming be like?

Scripture has three definitive things to say about it.

The Time of the Second Coming

Matthew 24:36, “But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, not the Son, but the Father only.” Two things only are certain, He is coming back and His coming is always near. This last statement, that His coming is always near, is an implication of 2 Peter 3:8 which says, “But do not overlook this one fact, beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.” Because of this passage’s explanation of time to God, who is Himself outside of time as well as the creator of time, implies that His coming is always near because time as it is to us is not what it is to God. What may be very short to us could possibly be very long to God, and what may be very long to us could possibly be very short to God. The passage also could seemingly be teaching us both of these realities simultaneously. This is why we’re given the command to be ready at all time. Matthew 24:44, “…be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.” The time of Christ’s return is, therefore, unknown to all except God the Father.

The Manner of the Second Coming

It will be personal, visible, and physical.

Recall Acts 1:11 that we began this evening with. “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw Him go into heaven.” So, the Jesus who left is the Jesus who will return. Acts 3:19-21, “Repent therefore, and turn back, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that He may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for restoring all the things about which God spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets long ago.” Philippians 3:20, “…our citizenship is in heaven, and from it we await a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ…” Colossians 3:4, “When Christ who is your life appears, then you also will appear with Him in glory.” 2 Thessalonians 1:10, “…when He comes on that day to be glorified in His saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed…” Christians are spoken of us people who “love His appearing” in 2 Timothy 4:8, as those who are “waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ” in Titus 2:13, and as those are “eagerly waiting for Him to appear a second time” in Hebrews 9:28. Christ Himself will return as He left, in His physical glorified body visible for all to see.

It will be sudden.

1 Thessalonians 5:2-6, “For you yourselves are fully aware that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. While people are saying, “There is peace and security,” then sudden destruction will come upon them as labor pains come upon a pregnant woman, and they will not escape. But you are not in darkness, brothers, for that day to surprise you like a thief. For you are all children of light, children of the day. We are not of the night or of the darkness. So then let us not sleep, as others do, but let us keep awake and be sober.” Similarly in Mark 13:35-37 Jesus says, “Therefore stay awake—for you do not know when the master of the house will come, in the evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or in the morning—lest he come suddenly and find you asleep. And what I say to you I say to all: Stay awake.”

These passages intend to teach us that the return of Christ will be sudden. But though it will be sudden God tells us to stay alert and watchful for His return so that we are not surprised when it occurs. So our lack of watchfulness is directly correlated to our measure of surprise when He comes again. That the return of Christ will be sudden also encourages us to live lives that are holy and pleasing to God in the present while we wait. Again Titus 2:11-13 shows us this. “For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation for all people, training us to renounce ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age, waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ…” So how are we to live while we’re waiting for the blessed hope of Christ’s second advent? v12 gives us the answer. We’re to renounce ungodliness and worldliness while we embrace godliness and holiness.

The Purpose of the Second Coming

The second coming of Christ will be personal, visible, physical, and sudden, but we find the purpose of His second coming in this: it will be triumphant.

There’s something of a historical parallel for us to see here. In the Roman Empire when the Roman armies would come back from a military campaign they would camp outside the city and send word to the senate that they were victorious and waiting to enter the capital. Upon hearing of their return the senate and other leaders of the city would set up a large archway for the soldiers to walk through which marked the beginning of a victory parade. The armies and the senate of Rome would agree upon a time to enter the city once all the preparations had been made and when that time had come for this large conquering host to begin marching into Rome a large trumpet would be blown. This trumpet was the signal for the citizens of Rome to come out and join in and participate in the victorious march themselves. Paul uses this imagery to discuss the return of Christ throughout his letters. That when Christ returns He is returning in triumph, at the trumpet sound, with His Church who joins in His victory because of their union with Christ.

So this moment when He comes, He will not be coming in condescension to save. No, He will come in exaltation as the King of all kings and Lord of all lords, the Judge, and ultimate Victor. He will bring in the full measure of His Kingdom. The dead will rise, the Church will meet Him in the air, and all will go to the judgment. The righteous will go into eternal life in the New Heavens and the New Earth, while all the wicked will go into an eternal punishment in hell.

This second coming is the single global event in which, what is immortal will swallow up what is mortal, all that is wrong in the world and wrong in us will be made right, and the entire history of mankind will come to a close.

What is the Intermediate State?

In 1562 Zacharias Ursinus, born on July 18, 1534, was asked to draft a new catechism for Frederick III. Ursinus, then a professor at the University of Heidelberg, began work immediately and one year later the Heidelberg Catechism was published. It was received so well it was soon translated into Latin, Dutch, French, and English. Since it’s publishing it has become the most loved and devotional catechism of the Reformation as well as the fourth bestselling book in history (after the Bible, Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, and Thomas a Kempis’ Imitation of Christ).

The 57th question of the catechism introduces us to our topic today.

Q: How does “the resurrection of the body” comfort you?

A: That not only my soul, after this life, shall be immediately taken up to Christ its head, but also that this my body, raised by the power of Christ, shall again be united with my soul, and made like the glorious body of Christ.

Question 57 of the Heidelberg Catechism speaks of the great biblical reality that one day our souls will be reunited with our bodies in the great resurrection. My aim in this post isn’t to discuss what our glorified bodies will be like or even to discuss the great and final resurrection. My aim is to talk about the in between time, when our souls are still separate from our bodies.

This time is called the intermediate state.

In the early Church the doctrine of the intermediate state wasn’t taught or written on because the return of Jesus was believed to be imminent. As the years progressed and a realization settled in that Jesus was tarrying, theologians began to discuss the intermediate state. These early accounts viewed this state as a temporary foretaste of the greater joy or greater terror to come. Among those who held this view were Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Novation, Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, and Augustine.

As time continued on into the Middle Ages this widely held belief was taken up by the Roman Catholic Church and it is here that we see the birth of purgatory. Which teaches that after physical death the souls of imperfect believers must go to a waiting place (or a limbo) where they will be purified to the point where they can enter into glory. In this sense purgatory is seen as the last step in a believer’s sanctification. How did they come to create such a doctrine? The Roman Catholics do defend and seek to prove the existence of purgatory from other passages, but they mainly go to 2 Maccabees 12. You may recognize that 1st or 2nd Maccabees isn’t in any of our Bibles. That’s because it’s found in what’s called the Apocrypha, or the Pseudepigrapha, as some Protestants call it. These books are historical books that show the details of what took place between the Testaments. The reason they’re not in our Bibles today is because the early Church fathers, Jesus and the apostles, as well as 1st century Jews didn’t believe them to be part of Scripture, so we don’t as well. They are helpful to read to get a historical perspective of what took place during that time, but in no way are these inspired texts of Scripture. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church didn’t officially believe the Apocrypha to be Scripture until 1547.

The context of 2 Maccabees 12, is that there has just been a large war where 25,000 Jews had been killed. The reason 25,000 men were killed was for secret idolatry. But afterward a leader named Judas leads the people to pray for these dead men “…that the sinful deed might be fully blotted out.” Then Judas took up an “offering for the dead, and had a special atoning sacrifice made them so that atonement would be made and they would be absolved from their sins.” Now you can see where the Roman Catholic Church gets their doctrine of purgatory as well as the doctrine of indulgences, which function as a kind of special offering for yourself or the dead taken up to shorten time spent in purgatory.

This view of purgatory was held as common belief until it’s rejection during the Protestant Reformation, though some reformers like Philip Melanchthon, believed it to be a matter of secondary importance and not worth arguing over. To this John Calvin said, “Since…purgatory is built on so very many blasphemies and is everyday reinforced by even bigger ones, creating untold scandals, it should never be ignored.” In our present time Roman Catholics and some Universalists still hold that purgatory exists (along with varying opinions of limbo), while the almost all the entire Protestant world rejects this concept due to lack of Scriptural evidence.

So what does the Bible say about the time between our physical death and the time when we’re reunited with our bodies at the resurrection? We could summarize it like this:

Upon death our bodies go into the grave while our souls will go immediately to heaven to be with Christ. In this state we will continue as conscious bodiless souls until the second advent of Christ where He will usher in His Kingdom in full measure, judge the world in righteousness, reunite the soul and body, send the wicked into hell forever, and bring the Church into the New Heavens and the New Earth for all eternity.

I do not believe the intermediate state to be a place of purification where we’re perfected until we’re holy enough to go to enter God’s presence, or even a place of soul sleep where we’re unconsciously waiting for Jesus’ second advent. No. I believe the intermediate state we get in the pages of Scripture is the time our bodiless and conscious souls spend in the direct presence of Christ in heaven, before the Second Coming of Christ.

We see this clearly in Revelation 6:9-11 where John the apostle says, “When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the Word of God and for the witness they had borne. They cried out with a loud voice, ‘O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before You will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?’ Then they were each given a white robe and told to rest a little longer until the number of their fellow servants and their brothers should be complete, who were killed as they themselves has been.”

Here we see the martyrs. Those who have borne witness boldly and bravely to the truth of the gospel in a place that didn’t welcome such things. For this they lost their lives. Upon their martyrdom their souls immediately go to the throne of God where they cry out for God to judge the world and avenge their blood. Here they will be until the full number of martyrs come in. This place where they are right now is the place where all believers go upon death – heaven, in the direct presence of the Lord. God hears their cries, knows their pain, and comforts them with robes of white until Jesus descends on the earth in a cloud of glory with His heavenly host to right all wrongs and make all sad things untrue.

The hope of heaven is that we will once again be united with our bodies and will reign upon the earth in the New Heavens and New Earth forever all because of Christ.

The Soul’s Immortality

Generally speaking, though there are always thinkers who deny it throughout history, in every nation, people, tribe, and tongue regardless of religious belief and quality of life there has always been a belief in the immortality of the soul.

Plato taught that upon death the physical body dissolves into parts while the soul remains intact and cannot be dissolved into parts because it is spiritual in nature and not physical. C.S. Lewis argues in Mere Christianity, that “…if I find in myself a desire which no experience in this world can satisfy, the most probably explanation is that I was made for another world.” Lewis is saying God gave men certain qualities (talents, aspirations, longings, etc.) that will not reach fruition in this world, and that from recognizing such realities he concludes that God has made another world where these qualities will reach their full potential, a world where we’ll live with Him forever. We could also speak of the lack of justice on the wicked. Our consciences testify that too often the evil grow in their evil deeds and those who suffer too often increase in sorrow in this life (think Psalm 73). That this is so often the case has led many to a belief in an afterlife where the wicked and the righteous receive what they’re due. Generally speaking, these thoughts sum up man’s opinions about why there must be an immortal state after this life and what that life entails.

Now, let’s get a bit more specific and go to the Scripture to see these things.

So let’s ask what appears to be a simple question on the surface. How does the Bible define the term immortality? We could use the term immortality in the sense that Paul uses the word in 1 Timothy 6 where speaking of God he says, “…He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has ever seen or can see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion forever. Amen” (1 Tim. 6:15-16). Here Paul makes it clear that it is God who alone has immortality, and because He alone has immortality He is the only Sovereign, the King of kings, the Lord of lords, to whom belongs honor, weight, and glory forever. If anyone one else has existence, that existence comes from the God who has always existed. All others had a beginning, the Father, the Son, and the Spirit never did.

But, since this passage clearly states God alone has immortality, does this imply that no one else will experience or have immortality? That answer from the Bible is clearly no. Adam and Eve could rightly be considered immortal beings before the fall. If they had obeyed God’s command and abstained from eating the fruit they would’ve continued to be immortal. But they chose poorly. So now upon physical death the body does return to dust (Gen. 3:19). But we know, because of the work of Christ, the souls of believers gain a blessed conscious immortality with Christ in glory while the souls of unbelievers gain a horrific conscious immortality apart from Christ in hell.

So yes God alone has immortality in the sense that only He has always been and never had a beginning. But also no, God is not the only One who has or experiences immortality because in another sense we too have immortality. The difference between our immortality and God’s is that ours is a created immortality. Paul makes this clear in his second letter to Timothy when he says Christ Jesus “…abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” (2 Tim. 1:10).

Theologians of old have described the immortality of the soul in these three ways:

Man in the Image of God

Man, as opposed to all the other creatures God made, was made different. Genesis 1:26-27 says God made man in His own image. This does means mankind is higher than the beasts because man has the ability to reason and ponder his own existence. Implied in this as well is the truth that mankind is higher than the beasts because man was made to commune with God, to worship God, to glorify God. How does man find out about the purpose he was made? God has placed eternity in his heart (Ecc. 3:11). Nowhere does the Bible give us any hint that God places eternity in any of the other creatures He made. That man is made in God’s image, and that God is eternal and immortal necessarily implies man, and man alone, will also have an eternal and immortal existence.

The Presence of Sheol and Glory

Throughout the Old Testament we see the wicked go to a place called sheol. In Psalm 49:14-15 the Sons of Korah declare, “Like sheep they (foolish man in his pomp, see v5-13) are appointed for Sheol; death shall be their shepherd, and the upright shall rule over them in the morning. Their form shall be consumed in Sheol, with no place to dwell. But God will ransom my soul from the power of Sheol, for He will receive me.” Here sheol is explained as a place of judgment not blessing. There is even a contrast to the wicked who are appointed for sheol and the upright who will rule over them. Then in v15 the Psalmist gladly declares that God will rescue him from such judgment. That the place of sheol exists and that it is contrasted with a place of blessing throughout the Scriptures, implies that man has an immortal existence apart from the body after death.

In the New Testament we see a similar reality being taught. In Matthew 10:28 Jesus says, “And do not fear those who can kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear Him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.” The contrast between Satan who can only kill the body and God who can destroy both soul and body in hell assumes the soul of man continues on after physical death. Likewise in Luke 23:43 Jesus tells one of the thieves next to Him on the cross, “Truly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in paradise.” Both Jesus’ and this thief’s body will expire very soon, but that Jesus pronounces the presence in paradise implies their souls lived on. Lastly a passage where no comment is needed, John 11:25, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in Me, though he die, yet he shall live…”

Confident and Delightful Expectation

The immortality of the soul is also seen in the numerous passages that speak of the confident and delightful expectation of the righteous. Job 19:25-27, “For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at the last He will stand upon the earth. And after my skin has thus been destroyed, yet in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!” Psalm 16:9-11, “Therefore my heart is glad, and my whole being rejoices; my flesh also dwells secure. For you will not abandon my soul to Sheol, or let your holy one see corruption. You make known to me the path of life; in Your presence there is fullness of joy; at Your right hand are pleasures forevermore.” Paul in 2 Cor. 5:1-5 speaks of the same expectation saying, “For we know that if the tent that is our earthly home is destroyed, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this tent we groan, longing to put on our heavenly dwelling, if indeed by putting it on we may not be found naked. For while we are still in this tent, we groan, being burdened—not that we would be unclothed, but that we would be further clothed, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life. He who has prepared us for this very thing is God, who has given us the Spirit as a guarantee.”

Here the tent that is our earthly home is our body and the building from God eternal in the heavens is our entire glorified state. So while is here in this body he is longing to be clothed with the eternal, “…that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.” We could also point to Paul’s monumental boast that is the entirety of Romans 8, where he delights in the no condemnation, no separation grace of God that will one day end in future glory where the sons of God will be revealed. These confident and delightful declarations of expectation imply the soul’s continuance after physical death.

Lesson? The activity of the soul is not a mere by-product of brain function that ceases when the brain dies with the body. We cannot after death live on in this life through our children and grandchildren though we love them dearly and will in a sense always remain in their hearts. Even if we make a name for ourselves in this life and leave behind a lasting and famous legacy or influence, we cannot after death live on inspiring many, eventually we all will one day be forgotten. That our souls will continue on for all eternity ought to sober us in this life. Indeed, living in light of eternity brings our present existence much clarity about what really matters.

The Complete Renovation of the Soul

In his book Turning to God: Reclaiming Christian Conversion as Unique, Necessary, and Supernatural David Wells says, “Conversions of all kinds are commonplace in our world today. An alcoholic turns from drink to sobriety. Westerners afflicted with boredom renounce their way of life and seek meaning from Eastern gurus. One person joins a cult and closes the door on his or her prior way of life; another looks for the power hidden within and turns away from institutional religion. Although these ‘conversions’ may be triggered by dramatic crises and result in changed behaviors, they are not conversions in any Christian sense. If they do not have Christ as their cause and object and His service as their result…If they do not involve turning from sin to God, on the basis of Christ’s atoning blood and by means of the Holy Spirit’s work, they cannot be called Christian.”

Perhaps you feel, even in this quote, the disdain our culture thinks of conversion? Conversion in our day conveys a negative image or a moment of forced decision, as if someone were strong-arming you into making a decision you don’t want to make. But I submit that this notion is largely an unfair view of conversion. For example if we were to look in a thesaurus we would find the following synonyms for the word conversion: change, adaptation, alteration, renovation, transfiguration, exchange, and even transformation. Interesting isn’t it? That our cultures view of the word conversion is so negative while the synonyms bring nothing but positive pictures into view. I suppose the negative idea of conversion has crept in from Church history; specifically those moments on both the Roman Catholic and Protestant side of the aisle when conversion was done by coercion. When it was forced either by trial, by inquisition, or by war. These are stains on the history of Christianity and are evidence that the Church is full of fallen men and women. Events like these have long lingered in the mind of man giving us our modern distaste for the idea of conversion.


When we come to the Bible we see an entirely refreshing and positive view of conversion. Rather than being seen as coercion we see it as the great work of the Holy Spirit in beginning the Christian life by raising us from spiritual death to spiritual life. It is the moment of transformation, when we become, by the work of the Spirit, something we never thought we would ever be. Conversion in the Christian sense of the word, in the biblical sense of the word is nothing less than a complete renovation of the soul.

Throughout the Scriptures there is one word rises to the top when we discuss conversion. This word in Greek is metamorphuo, which as you can probably guess is where we get the English word metamorphosis. When this Greek word shows up in the New Testament it is usually translated into English as ‘transformation.’ In regards to the transformation of conversion two passages drive this home to us.

An Unveiling Glory – 2 Corinthians 3:12-18

“Since we have such a hope, we are very bold, not like Moses, who would put a veil over his face so that the Israelites might not gaze at the outcome of what was being brought to an end. But their minds were hardened. For to this day, when they read the old covenant, that same veil remains unlifted, because only through Christ is it taken away. Yes, to this day whenever Moses is read a veil lies over their hearts. But when one turns to the Lord, the veil is removed. Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another. For this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.”

Here Paul is comparing the glory of the Old and New Covenants. To illustrate this comparison he speaks firstly of Moses, who had to put a veil over his face so that the Israelites wouldn’t be terrorized by the glory of God. Paul says even in his day when the Law is read there is still a veil over the hearts of the Israelites. “But when one turns to the Lord, the veil is removed” (3:16). More so, Paul seems to interrupt his argument with a statement about the freedom that comes into the heart when the Holy Spirit removes the veils and takes up residence within us. But upon further examination Paul isn’t interrupting anything. Paul makes this statement about the Spirit in v17 in order to tell us that the One who does the work of removing this veil over our hearts is the Holy Spirit Himself, and because the Spirit does this, we now have freedom. Freedom from what? Freedom from the Law, freedom from the veil over our eyes, freedom from the veil over our hearts. Freedom from the shadowy nature of the old covenant. Freedom in the crystal clear nature of the new covenant. Freedom to see the glory of God with nothing hindering our sight. Freedom to finally draw near to God without sheer and utter terror.

Then, in what has to be one of the most famous passages of Scripture, Paul summarizes by detailing this Spirit produced metamorphosis and transformation saying that in the New Covenant all those who come to Christ by faith, now, with an unveiled face, behold the glory of the Lord. And from beholding God’s glory we are literally transformed by that glory into another kind of person. Initially this is the moment of conversion, or resurrection, of the new birth. But notice that once God transforms us, that transformation doesn’t end, it continues on progressively from one degree of glory to another. This progressive work of transformation is called sanctification, where God, by exposing us to more of His glory, makes us into His holy image. So the initial moment of transformation in view here is a one time act of God’s free grace on us, and the progressive transformation in view here is the continual work of God’s free grace in us. If there is any doubt in the reader as to who is responsible for this unveiling, transforming, metamorphosing work, Paul makes it clear in v18, “This (all of this grace!) comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.”

So from this first passage we learn that conversion is a transformative moment, where the Holy Spirit does the work of removing the veil over our hearts so that we can truly behold the glory of God. And from beholding the glory of God, what happens? We are transformed…initially and marvelously and throughout our lives God the Spirit continues to transform us to greater and greater degrees. Notice the end of v18 again, “For this comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.” This is why Paul is able to call believers letters written not with ink but by the Spirit of the living God in 3:3.

Creating A New Creation – 2 Corinthians 5:14-19

“…we have concluded this: that one has died for all, therefore all have died; and he died for all, that those who live might no longer live for themselves but for him who for their sake died and was raised. From now on, therefore, we regard no one according to the flesh. Even though we once regarded Christ according to the flesh, we regard him thus no longer. Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation.”

Here Paul is laying out the ministry of reconciliation all believers have received from God. He died so that those who live would no longer selfishly live for themselves but for the glory of Christ who died and was raised for them in v14-15. Because Christ died that we would live for His glory Paul says he no longer regards those who believe in Christ according to flesh in v16. How then does Paul regard believers? v17 tells us, he regards us as what we truly are – new creations of God. The old has passed, the new has come. How did this happen? v18-19 tell us. All of this is from God, who sent His Son to reconcile us to Himself and then give us the ministry of reconciliation after His resurrection.

This is all good and well but where does the Holy Spirit come into this? Through the theme of creation. Back in Genesis 1 who was hovering over the waters? The Spirit. What then did God do to create all we see today? He spoke His Word by the power of His Spirit into the darkness and created all things. Paul uses this exact argument one chapter earlier to describe how God made new creations out of us at conversion. In 2 Cor. 4:6 he says, “For God, who said ‘Let light shine out darkness,’ has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.”

Therefore, the meaning of 3:18 and 5:17 is that just as God accomplished creation through His Word and Spirit, so too, God accomplished our conversion by His Word and Spirit too, transforming us and making us new creations.


Yes, change is needed. Yes, change is possible. Yes, we must become new, not just better. Yes, we must know the gospel, believe the gospel, and bank on the gospel. And yes, all of these things, all of this great work of God inside the soul of man that we call conversion, is brought about by living and enduring Word of God.

Our Greatest Problem Is Not What You Think It Is

Mankind has a host of problems to deal with in life.

Some of the major ones we’ve got to deal with are nuclear weapons, war, disease, population increase, cleaner and more sustainable energy, terrorism, injustice, domestic and global economic crisis, climate change, hunger, poverty, and clean water around the world. Some dare to include other problems to this list like tangled ear bud cords, running out of siracha, and posting something on Facebook only to receive a couple of likes. Above these ridiculous first world problems, and above these real global problems we encounter in this life, one problem rises to the top that every man will one day have to face: death.

That statistics will always stand. 10 out of 10 die. Regardless what man in his scientific genius accomplishes in this life the reality of death awaits us all. On this R.C. Sproul says, “Death is the greatest problem human beings encounter. We may try to tuck thoughts of it away in a far corner of our minds, but we cannot completely erase our awareness of our mortality. We know that the specter of death awaits us.”[1]

All the way back in the beginning God told the man Adam and the woman Eve in Genesis 2:16-17, “You may surely eat of every tree of the garden, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” They could eat of any tree they so desired as they did life in the garden God had made for them. But they believed the word of the serpent over the Word of God and ate of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Upon sinning that first time they spiritually died and became unfit to be in God’s presence, so they were banished from the garden. But spiritual death wasn’t only in view. Up until the point they ate the fruit they were going to be with God for all time, but now that they had fallen, physical death would one day come to them. Paul speaks of this sad moment in Romans 5:12-18 where he says sin came into the world through Adam, and death through sin, which led to death spreading to all men. Thus we read God’s pronouncement upon our first parents in Genesis 3:19, “…for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.”

Therefore, the origin of spiritual and physical death is sin.


I recently had the opportunity to attend a funeral. Family and friends gathered to honor this man’s life, memories were shared and tears were shed inside the church and throughout the few days we came together. But for me, the most poignant moment of the whole funeral, the moment filled with sobering reality, was when we gathered around the gravesite for the burial. I knew once the casket went into the ground that this man wasn’t coming back out. The finality of the moment was thick. It seemed impossible to escape. The unbelieving worldview simply thinks of death as the last part of a natural process but standing there watching the casket and hearing the sobs of the loved ones I didn’t feel anything of natural order. It made me feel that death is a cruel master, waiting to carry out its sentence on all of us one day where it will harshly sever the unity of body of soul.

Perhaps this is why Louis Berkhof mentions that “…death is something foreign and hostile to human life: an expression of divine anger, judgment, condemnation, and a curse.”[2] I think we feel such things at moments like this because death wasn’t part of our original state before God. We we’re made to live with Him forever but because we chose to sin by rebelling against God’s command all of us now will (because of God’s judgment on us for our sin) feel the pang of death one day. That is, unless Jesus returns first.

But see the beauty of the grace of God in that while He could’ve put forth an exact judgment as soon as Adam and Eve at the fruit, ending humanity once and for all, He didn’t. In His common grace He restrains the full effects of sin and death, and adding glory upon glory, in His special grace to His people He has conquered sin and death through the work of Christ. So it is true what many preachers have said throughout the ages, “Believers are born twice and die only once while unbelievers are born only once and die twice.” Is this not the outworking of Romans 6:23? “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” The wages, or payment, of sin is death. So all those who remain in sin and unbelief will experience death in hell forever. While all those who forsake sin and believe will experience life in heaven forever.

But since the wages of sin is death, and Jesus bore our sin as our substitute, absorbing the wrath of God in our place, since that is true, why do believers still have to physically die? Why can’t God just take us to heaven when we’re saved or sometime before physical death occurs since believers have no more wages for sin to pay? This is a good question, and there are good reasons why God ordains for most of us to go through physical death.[3]

First, for Witness

If we are born again and immediately taken to heaven who would preach the gospel, who would share the gospel, who would gather with the Church? In fact, if God took us away upon conversion there wouldn’t be any Church left on earth, and if there is no Church left on earth, there is no way the great commission would be engaged in, let alone finished. By saving us and leaving us here God gives us the opportunity to be a witness to truth throughout our lives.

Second, for Humility

Nothing humbles the pride of man than an awareness of an impending death. Even if God’s providence brings you death years into the future, the knowledge that death will one day come and bring your life on earth to an end, does much to bring one’s life into focus. That all mankind: rich and poor, young and old, male and female will one day die is a great equalizer.

Third, for Holiness

Death does bring one’s life into focus. The peripheral things get pushed away and the chief things of man come into prominence. And among those chief things that come into prominence, knowing and pleasing God becomes most prominent because He is ultimately the One we must reckon with in the end of all things. Therefore, an awareness of death in the end will lead one to have a greater zeal for holy living in the present.

Fourth, for Heavenly Mindedness

In Colossians 3:1-4 Paul makes this point stating, “If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is your life appears, then you also will appear with Him in glory.”

The big idea Paul is getting is that we live this life rightly by considering, inclining our heart to, and wholeheartedly entertaining the things that are above, not on things that are on earth. So to set our minds on things above means using all of our energy to know Christ, continually seeking to mature in Christ, getting out there and pursuing the lost with the message of Christ, reading and meditating on God’s Word to grow in the knowledge of Christ, devoting ourselves to prayer to draw closer to Christ, and giving our lives to the service of the Church following the example of Christ. To flip the popular saying, “The only way to be of any earthly good is to be heavenly minded.”

The Puritan pastors used to teach their congregations to think on death often for the sake of gaining the right perspective in our current lives. In the Puritan prayer book, the Valley of Vision, part of the prayer entitled Sleep reads, “May my frequent lying down make me familiar with death, the bed I approach remind me of the grave, the eyes I now close picture to me their final closing. Keep me always ready, waiting for admittance to thy presence… I retire this night in full assurance of one day awaking with thee.”[4]

For the Puritans, our earthly life is only the title page and table of contents, preparing us to for chapter 1 of the never ending book that is eternity with God.

May the same be true of us as well.




[1] R.C. Sproul, Everyone’s A Theologian, page 295

[2] Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, page 670.

[3] I say ‘most’ because the believers who are alive when Christ returns will not have to endure through physical death.

[4] The Valley of Vision, page 163.

The Centrality of the Atonement

The atonement of Christ on the cross is central to the message of Christianity.

To atone for something is to make amends or to make satisfaction for a wrong. This is exactly what we see on the cross – it is through the blood of Christ that the holy God and sinful man are brought together peaceably. By nature we’re at odds with God because of sin, and at the center of our message we find blood. The blood of Christ, which is able to bring sinners like us who were once far away from God, near to Him. This is why Christianity is seen as a religion with a central message of redemption and reconciliation. By the blood of Christ we are redeemed from sin and reconciled to God. So we see at a very basic level that any representation of Christianity that diminishes the centrality of the atonement is a false form of Christianity.

Even from the earliest chapters and books of the Bible we see atonement as central to those who would do life with God. In Eden, after the fall of man, for the first time in history God made atonement for His people by shedding the blood of an animal and using it’s skin to cover the shame of Adam and Eve. Cain and Abel offer sacrifices in Genesis 4, Noah offered sacrifices to God in Genesis 8, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob all do the same thing each time God meets them or blesses them. We see many other offerings in Genesis, but when Israel gets into slavery in Egypt and when God calls Moses to go to Pharaoh and say ‘Let My people go’ in behalf of God it is here where we see the doctrine of atonement coming into view clearly.

After 9 plagues completely devastate the Egyptians, God brings a dreadful decree to close out His assault on Egypt. He tells Moses of His plans and Moses tells Pharaoh in Exodus 11:4-6, ‘Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight I will go out in the midst of Egypt, and every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die…there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there has never been, nor ever will be again.’ Moses leaves Pharaoh’s presence and God gives Him further directions in chapter 12, ‘This month shall be for you the beginning of months…On the 10th day of this month every man shall take a lamb for his household and on the 14th day of the month you shall kill the lamb at twilight. Then take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the house…the blood shall be a sign for you…and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt.’

It was the blood that saved Israel from death, it was the blood that secured their redemption from Egypt. Paul picks up this theme in 1 Cor. 5 where he calls Christ our Passover Lamb. The parallel is clear is it not? Just as the blood of the lamb secured Israel’s redemption from Pharaoh and Egypt and sent them on their way to the promise land, so too, it is now the blood of Christ, our Passover Lamb, that secures our redemption from Satan, sin, and death and sends us on our way to the greater Canaan. It was the blood of the lamb that atoned for Israel, it is the blood of the Lamb of God that atones for us.

From this point on, we see God instituting His Law, which has many prescriptions in it for various offerings and sacrifices intended to atone for the sin of the people. This Law is then what all of the Old Testament prophets courageously and consistently called God’s people back to. Therefore, atonement has always been central to the people of God, and when we come over into the New Testament we find that all the sacrificial atoning work of God culminates in one act of atonement, the cross of our Lord Jesus.

Let me show you this in six ways:

1) The Atonement is a Secured Redemption

Hebrews 9:11-12, ‘But when Christ appeared as a High Priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and more perfect tent (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation) He entered once for all into the holy places, not by means of the blood of goats and calves but by means of His own blood, thus securing an eternal redemption.’ This puts on display what we’ve seen already – in the Old Testament the high priest once a year would enter into the Most Holy Place to make atonement for God’s people by the means of the blood of goats and calves, but Jesus, our true High Priest, entered the Most Holy Place to make atonement for God’s people once for all time, not by the blood of animals, but by His own blood. What was the result? The result was not that redemption was now possible, no, the result was that by doing this Jesus secured an eternal redemption. In 9:15-22 the author of Hebrews goes onto say that the only people who benefit from this atoning work are ‘those who are called.’

2) The Atonement was Accomplished

Romans 8:30, ‘And those whom He predestined He also called, and those whom He called He also justified, and those whom He justified He also glorified.’ In this passage Paul speaks of Christ’s work with such confidence that he uses the past tense for all of his main verbs, speaking that even glorification is already accomplished for God’s people through the work of God’s Son. This is why Jesus cried out on the cross, ‘It is finished!’ in John 19:30.

3) The Atonement is for the Church/Sheep

Ephesians 5:25-27, ‘Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the Church and gave Himself up for her, that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the Word, so that He might present the Church to Himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish.’ In these verses who is it that Christ loved? Who is it that Christ gave Himself up for? Who is it that Jesus cleansed by the water of the Word? Who is it that He’ll one day present to Himself in splendor by His atoning work? His Church. He loved the Church and gave Himself up for the Church, only the Church. John 10:11 also, ‘I am the good Shepherd. The good Shepherd lays His life down (for who??) the sheep.’ After saying this to the crowds Jesus a bit further on in 10:26 tells many who are listening to Him that they ‘are not among His sheep.’ Acts 20:28, ‘Pay careful attention to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care for (who?) the Church of God, which He obtained (how?) with His own blood.’

4) The Atonement Redeemed a People for Christ’s own Possession

Titus 2:14 speaks of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ ‘who gave Himself for us to redeem us from all lawlessness and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good works.’ Christ gave Himself to redeem a people, a particular people, for His own possession. John 11:51-52 speaks of this by saying the cross gathered into one people the children of God who were scattered abroad. Matthew 1:21 too, ‘Mary will bear a son, and you shall call His name Jesus, for He shall save His people from their sins.’ Here we see Jesus’ name is connected with His mission. Why did He come? To save His people, from their sins.

5) The Atonement is Not for All but ‘Many’

Matthew 20:26-28, ‘Whoever would be great among you must be your servant, and whoever would be first among you must be your slave, even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give His life as a ransom for many.’ Isaiah 53:11, ‘Out of the anguish of His soul He shall see and be satisfied; by His knowledge shall the Righteous One, My servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and He shall bear their iniquities.’

6) The Atonement Purchased a Global People

Rev. 5:9-10, ‘And they sang a new song, saying ‘Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, for You were slain, and by Your blood You ransomed (purchased – NIV) people for God from every tribe and language and people and nation, and You have made them a Kingdom of priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.’ See here again, the cross didn’t make salvation possible for people, a specific, a definite people were purchased on the cross.

Again, any representation of Christianity that diminishes the centrality of the atonement or seeks to lesson Christ’s atonement by saying it wasn’t intended to purchase a select few but merely make salvation possible is in error. On the other hand, any representation of Christianity that makes much of this atonement and glories in the six items above is true, good, and beautiful.

Give your lives to churches that glory in the centrality of the atonement.

The Mission of the Church

Sooner or later the question ‘What is the mission of the Church?’ is something every Christian asks. We ask this question because a Christian, by definition, is a new creation. The moment of the new birth, a new life begins, and God intends our new life to be lived out among the new community called the Church. Once involving ourselves in the membership of the Church we begin to grow in our knowledge of the Church’s mission. Or to say it another way, once we’ve been inside the Church long enough we begin to understand that God has called the Church to one certain task above all other tasks.

This task is the mission of the Church.

But with the rise of the term missional, I’m afraid it is now a bit more difficult to discern the chief task God calls the Church to do. Such that almost everything the Church does is seen as its mission. To worship God is our mission. To study the Bible is our mission. To pray is our mission. To disciple is our mission. To care for those in need is our mission. Being missional is abundantly helpful in that it reminds us that everything we do carries a deep sense of purpose along with it. John Stott has said mission isn’t all the Church does, but “…everything the church is sent into the world to do.”[1] But being missional can be less the helpful because when everything the Church does is part of our mission, it can be puzzling to know if God even gives or calls the Church one supreme task above all others.

So we come back to the question, ‘What is the mission of the Church?’ And when looking for the chief or supreme task and activity God has given to the Church, when looking for the mission we’re to give ourselves to we need look no further than Great Commission of Matthew 28:18-20. “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to Me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I and with you always.”

Taking a closer look at this commission shows us that there are three things[2] to see here:


Submitting to the Authority of Christ

The authority of Christ is large theme throughout the gospel of Matthew. For example in it we see Jesus healing, casting out demons, teaching with authority, as well as forgiving sin. So when we read here of the authority of Christ in 28:18 it’s not a new authority we see. We’ve seen His authority all along. But because of His resurrection He does now have a new level of authority, indeed the highest possible authority.[3] Because of this, first and foremost, the one reason Jesus Christ can say that He has been given all authority is because He and He alone is the resurrected Lord. He is One who has an unending Kingdom, and He is the One with everlasting dominion. At the beginning of Matthew 28 Jesus was in the tomb and when He rose v3-4 says, “His appearance was like lightning, and His clothing was white as snow. And for fear of Him the guards trembled and became like dead men.” When the stone rolled away from the tomb everything changed. We are no longer free to ignore Jesus as a mere teacher or prophet, we must recognize and submit to Him as the very Lord of all.

Matthew Osborne rightly states that Matthew 28:18 is the highest statement of Christology in the entire Bible.[4] All of the great Christological passages of the New Testament (Col. 1:15-20, Phil. 2:5-11, and Heb. 1:1-3) exists because Matthew 28:18 came first. Jesus has all authority. Therefore all men must humble themselves before Him. Perhaps you’ve heard someone say, or perhaps you yourself have once said that ‘you made Jesus Lord of your life.’ Nothing could be further from the truth. Jesus isn’t made Lord by our approval and authorization, He is Lord. He doesn’t become God over us when we give Him permission, He is God over us. This means when we repent of sin and turn to Him in faith we are not accepting Him into our lives. No. When we repent of sin and turn to Him in faith, we become acceptable to Him.

Do not miss this: the Lord Jesus holds all authority over heaven and earth. 

Following the Command of Christ

Because Jesus holds all authority He has the right to do whatever pleases Him, and it pleases Him to command us to go and disciple the nations. v19-20, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you…” David Platt says of this commission, “This is not a comfortable call inviting most Christians to come, be baptized, and sit in one location. This is a costly command directing every Christian to go, be baptized, and make disciples of all nations.”[5] As the first Adam was commanded by God to exercise dominion and spread God’s image with his helpmate Eve, so too, now the Second and Last Adam Jesus Christ is exercising His dominion by spreading His own image around the world through His helpmate the Church.

This does indeed mean that the mission of the Church is to go spread the gospel of Christ and disciple with the gospel of Christ to the uttermost ends of the earth among every people group. But it also means ‘as we go’ about our life we should be about the business of the Kingdom of God wherever we find ourselves to be. Just because some may feel urged to go to the hard places of the world to spread the gospel, it does not mean the rest of the Church has no commission responsibility. We’re all to be about the work of the commission in our own contexts. Or Acts 1:8 says, “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be My witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.”

Some have interpreted this Great Commission in such a way as to lessen the importance of working hard to alleviate suffering around the world. We should not do this, but we should keep things in the proper perspective. Yes we care about suffering, yes we care about homelessness, yes we care about the quality of food and water, yes we care about slavery of all kinds, and yes we care about serving those in need. But, if we attend to these important physical needs while neglecting the most important spiritual need of all people we sin. All of the Church, throughout all generations, is to chiefly and supremely be about the business of baptizing and teaching disciple making disciples. The Church should be concerned with getting the whole counsel of God to the whole world.

Whatever else we do as the Church in this world pales in comparison to this mission.

Remember, the One commanding us to this mission has all authority in heaven and earth. Who He is and what He has done is the very message we’re to be spreading. And because He is worthy of all worship for who He is and the work He has done John Piper is exactly right to say, “Missions is not the ultimate goal of the Church. Worship is. Missions exists because worship doesn’t. Worship is ultimate, not missions, because God is ultimate, not man. When this age is over, and the countless millions of the unredeemed fall on their faces before the throne of God, missions will be no more. It is a temporary necessity.”[6]

Depending on the Presence of Christ

Lastly, upon whom do we depend in this chief mission of the Church? How do we know this mission will succeed? Are we banking on our own ingenuity or on our own methods? Are we relying on our own stick-to-itiveness and endurance to make it to the end? Are we trusting in our own resources to spread this message to all peoples? No. v20 shows us what we must depend on, “And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” Jesus promises to always be with us. Matthew begins and ends in the same way. The announcement of Immanuel (God with us) began the book, and now the promise of the presence of the resurrected Lord forever ends the book.

To sum all of this up, in submitting to the authority of Christ, following the command of Christ, while depending on the presence of Christ – the Church finds and fulfills its chief mission: discipling the nations. All of His authority, all of the nations, teaching all that He commanded, with all of His presence.[7]

Church, take hope. This mission cannot fail.




[1] John Stott, Christian Mission in the Modern World: What Should the Church be Doing Now? Downers Grove, IL, InterVarsity, 1975, page 30.

[2] David Platt, Christ-Centered Exposition: Exalting Jesus in Matthew, page 369-379.

[3] Douglas Sean O’Donnell, Matthew: All Authority in Heaven and Earth, Preaching the Word Commentary, page 911.

[4] Ibid, page 913, and 1036.

[5] David Platt, Christ-Centered Exposition: Exalting Jesus in Matthew, page 374-375.

[6] John Piper, Let the Nations Be Glad, page 15.

[7] Douglas Sean O’Donnell, Matthew: All Authority in Heaven and Earth, Preaching the Word Commentary, page 918.

Three More Helpful Points On Eschatology

Last week I began this post by giving you two helpful introductory points on eschatology, today I want to give you three more.

Third, the New Testament is God’s inspired commentary on the Old Testament.

Hence, Jesus can say the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms all speak of Him on the road to Emmaus in Luke 24:27 and 24:44. Which leads Sam Storms to say, “Old Testament authors prophesied of events that would occur in a distant time and in a new world inaugurated by Jesus. From their original context they might not fully grasp how their words would find fulfillment in a history radically transformed by the coming of Christ.”[1] So, the New Testament shows how Old Testament prophecies were fulfilled at Christ’s first coming, and how they are then ultimately fulfilled at Christ’s second coming. The authoritative guide to understanding and interpreting the Old Testament is the New Testament. Dr. Derek Thomas once told us students at Reformed Theological Seminary that the reason the apostle Paul arrived the conclusions he did throughout his letters wasn’t because he was a theological innovator, but because he knew his Old Testament very well.

Fourth, when it comes to prophecy we should remember that “our ideas about things we have never experienced are largely controlled by things we have experienced.”[1]

This fourth, like the third statement gives us more background on the original intentions of the biblical authors. When the Old Testament authors sought explain a future they hadn’t lived in, they explained it with images and language from the world they did live in. For example Isaiah 2:4 speaks of a time when God’s people will “beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks.” Did Isaiah mean that one day we will literally hammer out weapons of war into tools for agriculture? Or is it more likely that Isaiah is speaking metaphorically of a time when God will bring such a lasting peace that war will be no more? I think the metaphorical reading is the correct one. But see that Isaiah describes this future with words and images from his own time.

This brings us face to face with a larger issue which many people wrongly interpret when it comes to the biblical language: the meaning of metaphor. On the surface of every metaphor there is an untruth used to teach a truth.[2] If a student says ‘That class was a breeze’ they do not literally mean the class itself was a light wind, they intend to communicate the easy nature of this class. Or if I say neglecting true and sound doctrine is a ‘slippery slope’ I do not mean that you’ll literally slip and fall down a slope. No. I intend to communicate the grave hazard it is to neglect the sound teaching of the Bible. All of this to say two things: first, to approach the Bible using a ‘wooden literalism’ is to interpret the Scripture in a manner God never intended. And second, to approach the Bible understanding the metaphorical nature of prophetic and apocalyptic passages is to interpret the Scripture in the manner God intended. I do think most of the errors interpreting the book of Revelation (and much of the nonsense we see today about prophecy and Israel) misunderstand this very thing.

Fifth, typology and eschatology go hand in hand.

In Romans 5:14 Paul says, “…Adam was a type of the one who was to come.” This word ‘type’ in Greek is tupos which means ‘type’ or ‘pattern’ or ‘example.’ Typology then, is the study and recognition of certain types (people, actions, institutions) in the Old Testament that are complemented and transcended in the New Testament.[3] So in Romans 5:14 we see that Adam is a type of Jesus Christ. Since this is the case, we should learn much of the Person and Work of the second Adam Jesus Christ by looking at the person and work of the first Adam. We can learn much of the Church, or the helpmate of Christ, by looking at Eve, Adam’s helpmate. We can learn much of heaven by looking at the promise land of Canaan. Types of all kinds abound in the Old Testament and they all find their fulfillment in the New Testament. We can not only learn much in this way, but often the New Testament authors will specifically point out that these former Old Testament patterns existed in order to prepare the way for the greater reality to come.

Now, to bring this back to eschatology. Of all the books in the New Testament do you know which one contains the most quotations, references, and allusions of the Old Testament? The book of Revelation. Thus, one cannot properly understand eschatology if we don’t know of typology. Or to say it another way, the more we know our Old Testament, the more glory we’ll see in the New.

These three, coupled with the previous two points about eschatology, will do much to help guide us in our study of eschatology.




[1] Brent Sandy, Plowshares and Pruning Hooks: Rethinking the Language of Biblical Prophecy and Apocalyptic (Downers Grove: IVP, 2002), page 25.

[2] Ibid, page 63-64.

[3] Leonhard Goppelt, Typos, page 10.

Two Helpful Beginning Points About Eschatology

The word eschatology comes from the Greek word ‘eschaton.’ Used throughout Scripture in various forms and tenses this word means ‘last things.’ So when coupled with the ending ‘ology’ eschatology means the study of, or the doctrine of the ‘last things.’ Though eschatology deals with many things, the sum and substance of eschatology is this: “Jesus Christ has ascended into heaven and promised to physically return on the last day in order to raise the dead, judge the world, and then create a new heaven and new earth.”[1]

Eschatology indeed has much to say about the future, but what is often overlooked is that it also has much to say about the past and the present as well. Because of the grand scope of this branch of theology, it can feel daunting and overwhelming to begin. Here are two introductory remarks about eschatology that will help you get started.[2]

First, Israel’s prophetic hope is found in the Person and Work of Jesus Christ as well as in the Church. This is to say that all of the Old Testament’s prophecies and promises are fulfilled in Jesus and His Church, and once fulfilled we’re not waiting for any future fulfillment to come.

Take for example, Jesus as the fulfillment of the Temple. In John 1:14 the Word did not only become flesh, it says “He became flesh and dwelt among us…” This phrase doesn’t just mean He resided or settled among us, it means far more. In the closing chapters of Exodus we see God confirm and renew the covenant He made with Abraham to the people of Israel, we see God give Israel detailed instructions for the tabernacle, for all the items that would go inside the tabernacle, and for the priestly garments. God says these things were to be made for beauty and for glory. God commanded all these various things and the tabernacle to be made because He intended to dwell among, or to be present with, His people through the tabernacle in their wilderness wanderings. After Israel obeyed and made these things, God’s glory, the shekinah glory of God, came down and filled the tabernacle, bringing a terrible and awesome joyful fear among the people.

Now go back to John 1:14. That phrase ‘dwelt’ is the Greek word ‘eskonosen’ which literally means ‘tabernacled’ or ‘tented’ among us. So just as God formerly dwelt and made His presence known among His people in the tabernacle, now God dwells and makes His presence known in the Person of Jesus Christ, the Word made flesh. And more so, just as the result of God dwelling among His people in the tabernacle was a display of God’s glory, did you notice what the rest of v14 says? There is another and greater display of glory in our current wilderness of this fallen world. “And the Word became flesh and tabernacled among us, and we have seen His glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.” John is making clear that because God has tabernacled among us in Jesus, God’s glory is now revealed to us and has truly taken up residence among us in the Person of Jesus. Which means, Jesus is the true shekinah glory of God. Or we could say it all another way: God used to come, filling the tabernacle with His glory, to speak with Moses face to face. Now God has come to speak with His people and reveal His glory in a vastly more intimate way, as Paul says in 2 Cor. 4:6, in the face of Jesus Christ. Therefore, all the Old Testament symbolism of God dwelling with man in the tabernacle and the temple, all that God hinted at in a dim and imperfect fashion is now fulfilled in the coming of Christ.

What does all this mean? We’re no longer looking for a physical temple to be rebuilt in national Israel today that marks the beginning of the end times. God no longer lives in a temple or tent or tabernacle, and He won’t ever return to one. Divine space is no longer confined or located or seen in a place, but a Person. Now, it is entirely possible that modern day Israelites may build a new temple and take up the Old Testament sacrificial system again within it. If that happens, though it may cause all sorts of political and religious turmoil, it will have zero theological significance. To think God would do that to mark the beginning of the end of all things is to make a backward move in redemptive history.[3] The only temple God now dwells in and will dwell in forevermore is His Son. And adding glory to glory, Jesus is now by the Holy Spirit making His Church into a new spiritual temple as we embrace the gospel, treasure it above all things, and spread it to all peoples.

You could also see this first principle in Jesus being the fulfillment of all the priests, all the prophets, all the kings, all the feasts, all the ceremonies, even the Sabbath itself. He is the Person all of the Old Testament points to and finds its fulfillment in.

Second, the biblical authors view the fulfillment of God’s redemptive purposes as one act in two phases. That is to say, God’s redemptive purposes and His Kingdom truly came with the first advent of Christ, but will finally and fully come with the second advent of Christ. Which means, we now find ourselves in the ‘overlapping of the ages.’

The time commonly referred to as the ‘last days’ begins with the first advent of Christ and ends with the second advent of Christ. We’re not waiting for the end times to come upon us one day in the future, we’re here in them now. Take one example from Genesis 49 when Jacob was blessing his sons.

To his son Judah he says in 49:8-10, “Judah, your brothers shall praise you; your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; your father’s sons shall bow down before you. Judah is a lion’s cub; from the prey, my son, you have gone up. He stooped down; he crouched as a lion and as a lioness; who dares rouse him? The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.”

In this blessing is the promise that all Israel will submit to and bow before Judah’s descendant. Judah is called a lion that holds a scepter, which is an instrument of rule. And this ruling or kingly scepter will remain in the house of Judah until one of Judah’s descendants comes to take it, and once this coming One takes it, the obedience of the peoples will be to him. This promise is fulfilled and confirmed in the Davidic covenant, but it’s ultimately fulfilled in the royal reign of Jesus Christ. Now go back to 49:1 and notice Jacob says all these things will take place ‘in days to come’ or in Hebrew ‘in the last days.’

So what happens to mark the beginning of the last days? Jesus Christ, the long awaited descendant of Judah will come, and take the up the scepter to rule.

Some say this refers to the second advent of Christ when He will come to judge the world and usher in His Kingdom. I disagree and believe this to be speaking of the first advent and not the second. Why do I think this is referring to the first advent? Because Hebrews 1:1-3 confirms that the last days began when God began speaking (revealing Himself) through His Son. “Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed the Heir of all things, through whom also He created the world. He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of His nature, and He upholds the universe by the word of His power.”

So, when Jesus was born He brought His Kingdom with Him, He began exercising His rule in part, and the last days began. These last days will end the moment Jesus returns for the second time to judge the world and usher His Kingdom in full. Therefore in this sense we see that there is an ‘already but not yet’ tension in our current time. We have been saved (Eph. 2:8), justified (Rom. 5:1), adopted (1 John 3:1), resurrected (Rom. 6), glorified (Rom. 8:30), and redeemed (Eph. 1:4). And yet we’re awaiting the day when we will be saved (Rom. 5:10), justified (Rom. 2:13), adopted (Rom. 8:23), resurrected (1 Cor. 15), glorified (Phil. 3), and redeemed (Rom. 13:11).[4]

Two introductory points, that do much to guide us well on the road to properly understanding biblical eschatology.




[1] Kim Riddlebarger, Reformation Theology, page 721.

[2] These two statements are from Sam Storms, Kingdom Come, pages 15-42.

[3] Ibid, page 20-21.

[4] Ibid, page 29.

Worship Matters: The Regulative Principle

There are few things that have caused as much controversy within the Church as worship. One of the reasons there are so many denominations is largely due to how churches worship. We could all give examples all over the spectrum in regard to this. Within one small city it is likely to see a church with very hefty structure or liturgy, a church with no structure at all, as well as a church that tries to blend the two. For each of these particular local churches, beliefs about worship govern how they function. Everything from how the building is built, what kind of things the building is used for, and what happens throughout the week. When the Sunday service(s) are in view a whole new batch of questions come up in regard to a church’s worship philosophy. How does worship begin? What do we do in worship? What do we not do? Is there music? If so, what kind and what instruments do we employ? Is there a sermon? If so, who preaches it and what makes up it contents? Is there prayer? If so, how should it be done? Is there an offering, a greeting, announcements, sacraments, calls to worship, or a benediction? If so, how do we do these things? The answers to all these questions (and more) comes down to one thing. What we believe about the nature of worship.

Amid all the varying opinions about worship and all the worship wars that have been fought over the centuries there is one thing too often forgotten – what does God say about worship? Perhaps on the surface that statement seems a bit naïve, but hear me out. Too many people have confused the difference between biblical mandates for worship and personal preference in worship. And by so doing we have often given our own personal worship preferences a divine weight they were never intended to carry. When this happens we can easily fall into the error of being more committed to our own man made traditions than God’s requirements for worship. Which would make us modern Pharisees.

So as we approach the subject of worship we must take caution. I want to discuss worship with a twofold aim. First, I want to examine what has historically been called the regulative principle to see what God has to say about how He’s approached in worship. Second, I want to discuss how the Scripture encourages us to apply this regulative principle in worship.

The Regulative Principle

As early as Genesis 4 we see that God has a great concern about how He is worshiped. Here we see Cain and Abel both worship God through making their own offerings. Cain’s is rejected and Abel’s is accepted. When God replies to Cain about why his offering was rejected in 4:6-7 He implies that Cain knew how to make an appropriate offering and if he had correctly made the offering he would’ve been accepted. In his anger over being rejected by God, Cain kills his brother. Later and all throughout Exodus we see God rescue and redeem Israel out of slavery in Egypt for the purpose of worship. Moses told Pharaoh, “…let us go a three days journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God” (Exodus 3:18). This theme of letting them go to worship is repeated on and on and on as the narrative progresses. Of this Ligon Duncan says, “It is the primary reason why God sets His people free: to worship Him. The primacy of worship in a believer’s life is, thus, set forth. We are saved to worship!”[1] After being redeemed from slavery God then brings them to Sinai and gives them the law to order their life and worship. The law is clear in the first two commandments. “You shall have no other gods before Me. You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve (lit. ‘worship’) them, for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love Me and keep My commandments” (Exodus 20:3-6).

They were to worship God only. No images, no idols, nothing else. Only God. All of Israel’s worship is to be governed by a true knowledge of God, His character, and His Word. No idols are to be worshiped and the true God is to be worshiped in the right way. Why? God is a jealous God. This means there are regulations on what the true worship of God looks like. These regulations are where we get the term, the regulative principle. The clearest definition of this principle is seen here in the first two commandments. One of the most helpful explanations of it is found in the Westminster Confession of Faith, chapter 21, paragraph 1. “The light of nature shows that there is a God, who has lordship and sovereignty over all, is good, and does good to all, and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called on, trusted in, and served, with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the might. But the acceptable way of worshiping the true God is instituted by Himself, and so limited by His own revealed will, that He may not be worshiped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scripture.”

To sum this up, since the Bible is where we learn who God is, the Bible is also to be the place where we learn how God is to be worshiped.

Israel did not do this well. In Exodus 32 we further see God’s concern over how He is worshiped when He rebukes the people for the golden calf incident. Afterwards in Leviticus 10 we find the sad account of Nadab and Abihu. Two brothers who offered strange or “unauthorized fire” to the Lord and were killed on the spot. We learn from these instances that the holy God must only be approached by a holy people. After the second giving of the law in Deuteronomy we see prophet after prophet reminding God’s people of what He revealed to them through the law of Moses. And when we cross over into the pages of the New Testament we do not see God’s concern about how He is worshiped lessen. We see it continue in Jesus’ teaching and in the teaching of the apostles.

The Application of the Regulative Principle

There are many ways we could speak of how to apply the regulative principle, and in order to do so here I’d like to take a brief look at the 16th century Protestant reformers. If you were to ask any one of the reformers what the reformation was about what do you think they would say? Justification by faith alone? Salvation in Christ alone to the glory of God alone? No. I think, they would say the reformation was about worship. Think about it. Before the reformation the worship of the church was done as a mass, and the centerpiece of the mass was the table. In the Roman Catholic understanding it was at the table, and by the priestly words, that the bread and the wine would literally become the body and blood of Christ. And when this happened Christ would be re-sacrificed anew and all those present would benefit from it. The reformers rightly saw this as what it was, heresy. So after the reformation broke out and Protestants began gathering together for worship, they put a new centerpiece in place by replacing the table with the pulpit. Because, it’s in the Word of God where we encounter, meet, and reckon with God Himself. And so by placing the pulpit front and center it was a visible reminder to all present that the Word of God governs the worship of God’s people.

Let’s now move back to the present and apply this regulative principle in light of the reformers recovery of the centrality of the Scripture. Because the Word is the only rule for faith and practice, and because His Word governs all of worship, the Bible should take center place in the worship of God’s people. This is applied in many ways. While all of life is to be worship to God as we give ourselves to be living sacrifices, the heart of our personal worship is the gathered worship with the body of Christ.[2] So let’s aim at applying this to corporate worship.

First, we should apply the regulative principle in the theology or philosophy of our worship. This first point answers the question as to what the basis of our worship is. As Westminster Confession chapter 21 states, we must not worship according to our own imaginations or preferences, but instead we must worship God in the manner God has instituted to be worshipped. We worship Him the way He wants us to, not the way we think is best. So, our theology of worship should not be based on pragmatic principles or popular trends or fads but based on what we see from God in Scripture. This means that rather than thinking about what we enjoy in worship, let’s instead think about what God expects of us when we gather together to worship Him.[3]

Second, we should apply the regulative principle in the structure of our worship. This second point answers the question of what elements to include in a worship service. Throughout the Old and New Testaments we see a variety of things taking place among the worship of God’s people. We see Scripture being read, Scripture being preached, prayer, singing, offerings, sacraments, and vows/oaths. Other than this, there’s not much guidance as to how to put all these things together.[4] God has given us a great measure of freedom here (this is why churches can look and feel so different). For example, many passages such as Colossians 3:16, John 4:24, and 1 Corinthians 14:40 give us principles for worship, but doesn’t direct how to plan our services step by step. There is one guiding principle to keep in mind. Which brings us to the last point.

Third, we should apply the regulative principle in the content of our worship. This third point answers the question of the substance of our worship from beginning to end. Everything done in the worship of God’s people should be pointing towards and proclaiming the same message as the text of the sermon. In this way, everything done serves the preaching of the Word. Why do this? Because while we may be speaking to God in song or prayer throughout the service the sermon is the apex of the service where God speaks to us. In this manner we sing the Word, pray the Word, hear the Word, see the Word, and respond to the Word. If we’re to continue to reformers tradition of the centrality of the pulpit, we will keep the Word the most prominent factor in our worship.



[1] Ligon Duncan, Give Praise to God, page 29.

[2] R. Kent Hughes, Worship By the Book, page 142.

[3] D.A. Carson, Worship By the Book, page 29.

[4] I mean it when I say that Scripture doesn’t give us much guidance on how to put all these elements together, but that does not mean there is no guidance on how to put it all together. For example we’re to serve one another in love, so if we only employ contemporary music to reach our modern world, we neglect the older members of our congregation and ignore the history of the Church. And the opposite is just as true – to only employ hymns would be to neglect the younger members of our congregation and to idolize some bygone era of Church history that was just as fallen as our current culture is now. Inspiration in song didn’t end with the hymnal and doesn’t begin with modern music.

Marks of the Church

Early on in the study systematic theology most examine the attributes of God, that is, those characteristics that describe who God is. In this post today I’ll look to the attributes, or marks, the Scripture uses when speaking of the Church. These marks have been points of identification for not only what the Church is in general but also what makes a healthy local church. Though there are many modern and historical confessions and creeds that point to various and important marks of the Church, I want to focus on the oldest creed that does this – the Nicene Creed. In the Nicene Creed, written around 325 AD at the council of Nicea, we read the following statement: “And we believe in One, Holy, catholic, and Apostolic Church…”


To say the Church is one is to say the Church is unified. When we come to the Son of God in faith we are united to the Son. Because we’re united to the Son, we’re accepted by the Father, and because we’re accepted by the Father John 17:23 tells us that the Father now loves us even as He loves His own Son and because the Father loves us He sends the Holy Spirit to reside in us. So every believer is in the Father and the Son and the Spirit, yet in our union with the Godhead we don’t lose our own distinctive identity or personality. Because of this work of God’s grace, being a Christian is more fundamental to our identity than the family we come from, the ethnicity we represent, the job we labor in, it is even more important than our nationality. The unity we share with other Christians is greater than any other bond we have in this world. This means where Christians exist, diversity always exists, but the stunning thing about the witness of a healthy church is that in the midst of diversity, there is unity. Therefore, our unity is a visible display of the invisible gospel.

So, true unity begins with the gospel, is upheld by the gospel, lasts by the gospel, and spreads because of the gospel. Paul writes of Jews and Gentiles at the end of Ephesians 2:14-18, saying that God has “…abolished the dividing wall of hostility that He might create in Himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby killing the hostility. And He came and preached peace to you were far off and peace to those who were near. For through Him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father.” Did you notice here that it is the gospel alone that upholds unity? How did God get rid of the hostility between Jew and Gentile? The cross of Christ, where He remade one new man from two separate peoples. If we continue down in Ephesians, going all the way 3:10 we find the purpose of this unity. God’s purpose is “…that through the Church the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly places.” What is on display in the unity of the Church? None other than the very character of God. Remember, you can’t physically see the gospel; but when we foster and encourage community that is supernatural, it makes the invisible gospel visible. Union with Christ, brings unity in Christ.

Suppose you wanted to heart a large room with burning coals, how would you do it? Do you spread the coals evenly throughout the room? No. That would dissipate the heat and eventually each coal would burn out. So how do we heat the room? You push all the individual coals together into one pile in the center of the room, and as they burn together they become one large heat source that’s brighter and hotter, and warmth will fill the room. Such is the unity of the local church. The more unified we become the brighter and hotter we’ll burn with the heat of the gospel, and the brighter and hotter we burn with the heat of the gospel, the more compelling our community becomes in its witness to the lost.


1 Peter 1:14-15 says, “As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance, but as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct…” Here we are presented with the reality that for Christians, holiness is to be pursued. v14 and v15 say the same thing in different ways. v14 says it negatively saying ‘do not be conformed to ignorant passions’ and v15 says it positively saying ‘be holy in all your conduct.’ When you combine the commands in v14 and v15 you have a clear picture of what the pursuit of holiness looks like. Since we’re called to not conform to ignorant and wicked passions, being holy means we conform to what is good, what is true, and what is beautiful. What is good, true, and beautiful? God Himself.

We’ve seen this in Old Testament Israel, they were set apart by God from the surrounding nations to be holy. Now Christ’s Church is to be set apart from sin and the surrounding world to be holy herself. Israel was to look different from her neighbors, and now the Church, though in the world, is to look different from the world. v14 calls this type of life ‘obedient.’ Therefore obedience for every Christian means conforming to Christ rather than the world around us. This means holiness is not optional for the Church. Holiness is not just something for mature Christians, holiness is not just something for pastors and elders, holiness is for all Christians, in all times, in all places. I know that each of you has at one time or another asked God this question, ‘God, what is Your will for my life?’ Listen to 1 Thessalonians 4:3, “For this is the will of God, your sanctification…” You can’t get clearer than that.

It is said that the moon, though appearing to be very bright, has no light of it’s own – it only reflects the sun. The same is true of us, in and of ourselves we have no holiness, we are mere reflectors of God’s pure light. Peter says the same thing as he continues his passage “…as He who called you is holy, you also be holy…” while v16 quotes Leviticus 11:44 where God says, “Be holy, for I am holy.” This teaches us that the foundation of our own holiness is God’s holiness, that our holiness is a reflection of God’s holiness.


Some of you right here from the start may be alarmed at such a because you may believe by teaching the ‘catholic’ nature of the Church that we are affirming the Roman Catholic Church. We are not doing that. We will never do that. So why use the word ‘catholic?’ Well the word ‘catholic’ that the Nicene Creed uses here has a lower case ‘c’ not an upper case ‘C.’ You may not think this matters very much, but the size of the letter ‘c’ determines alot. While an upper case ‘C’ indicates a proper noun and refers to the institution of the Roman Catholic Church, the creed’s usage of the lower case ‘c’ indicates the original sense of the word, which simply means ‘universal.’ Therefore to say the Church is catholic, to define the Church as having ‘catholicity’ is to say the Church is universal. This means Christ’s true Church is formed by all the people who, in all times and in all places, have believed in Jesus Christ as He is offered to us in the gospel.

In Revelation 5:8-14 Jesus took the scroll the four living creatures and the 24 elders fell down before Him, with their golden bowls of incense, and then what happened? They sang a new song with these words, “Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, for You were slain, and by Your blood You ransomed people for God from every TRIBE and LANGUAGE and PEOPLE and NATION, and You have made them a kingdom of priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.” Later on after this all the hosts of heaven and earth sang two more songs singing these words in v12 and v13, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing…To Him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!”

These new songs the living creatures, the elders, the myriads of angels, and all those on and under the earth are singing is a song of praise to the Lion-Lamb Christ who acted in redemption, purchasing for God…what? A universal Church made up of all peoples. Notice the new song being sung isn’t about the glory of America, or English speaking peoples, rather it’s about the glory of Christ who has redeemed men and women from all peoples and all tribes and all languages and tongues.


The meaning of Apostolic is given to us within the word itself. To say the Church is ‘Apostolic’ is to say the Church is founded on the apostle’s teaching. The book of Acts makes this crystal clear in Acts 2:42 when Luke, the author, says, “And they devoted themselves to the apostles teaching and the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.” Here we see a summary of what the early Church devoted themselves to or continued steadfastly in when they gathered together. They devoted themselves to prayer, to the breaking of bread (Lord’s Supper), and fellowship. But notice what’s on the top of the list here? “They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching…” Above all they did, the central object in focus was the teaching of the apostles. This is why we say that the apostles’ teaching is the foundation of the Church.

This is clear to most of us I think and, clear as it may be, it does bring up a number of questions, questions that need answering. Questions like: ‘Who were the apostles?’ ‘What did the apostles teach?’ and finally ‘Why is the apostles’ teaching so important?’ To answer this briefly I’ll just say this. The apostles were common, ordinary men who became Apostolic representatives by the power of the Holy Spirit, who then through the inspiration of the Spirit turned into Apostolic writers, who have left in their writings an Apostolic witness for the Church for all time. Therefore the Bible you hold in your hand is the only Apostolic authority for us today as well as the sum and substance of Apostolic teaching.

As the early Church devoted themselves to the apostles teaching, let’s do the same today.

Images of the Church

Today I want to discuss images of the Church. BUT, do not think of the ‘images’ forbidden in the 2nd commandment when I say images of the Church. Rather, think of the ways in which the Bible describes the Church; the metaphors and the descriptions of it. There are many of such images given to us, let’s take a look at the ones most often used.

The Church as a Building

Many people often refer to the ‘church’ as a building, and while they may not know it, they’re closer to the truth than they realize. The Church is a building. Of course I’m not referring to the physical brick and mortar, but the individual men and women who have believed in Jesus who are then made into a spiritual building by God.

Peter makes this point in 1 Peter 2:4-8 saying, “As you come to Him, a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious, you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. For it stands in Scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in Him will not be put to shame.” So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, “The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone,” and “A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense.” They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.”

Jesus is portrayed here as the chief cornerstone, rejected by men but chosen and precious to God. All mankind responds to this cornerstone by believing or not believing. Those who believe on Him, Peter says, are being built up as living stones into a spiritual house. The function of this spiritual house, which is the Church or the New Covenant priesthood, is to offer up acceptable worship to God through Christ. When they do this, they will never be put to shame. For those who do not believe, this cornerstone isn’t chosen and precious but offensive and uncertain. The picture we get here is that while the believers are being built up into a spiritual house with a firm foundation, being built together for the purpose of worship, all those who do not believe are shamed and stagger about in life aimless and hopeless with no foundation.

In Matthew 16:18 Jesus promises that the Church will always be because He will build it though all hell is afraid of it and eager to wreck its success. Though the Church appears weak in this world we are indeed ever steady and ever firm because of our foundation stone, Jesus. There is no more physical temple any longer, Jesus has tabernacled among us and in His flesh fulfilled the physical temple. Now, all believers are the temple of God, made not with human hands but by the hand of God Himself, and in which God dwells. “Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? You are not your own, for you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body” (1 Cor. 6:19-20). The Church is the building of God.

The Church as a Body

Another image used for the Church through Scripture is that of a body. To say this is to say that the Church is the Body of Christ. Jesus is our head, we are the body; the hands, feet, toes, fingers, knees, ankles, and elbows of Christ. You see the correlation right? Just as the correct operation of all the parts of our physical bodies is necessary for normal life to occur, so too to say the Church is the body of Christ is to say that each member of the Church is vital to the correct operation of the whole. So each member is a living extension of the greater body, and is dependent on all the others. And just as the body as a whole only works rightly when it works together as a unified whole, so too the each member and each local congregation of the global Church should always strive to be so united. Also, just as our physical head leads the body it sits atop, so too Jesus is the head of the Church. Naturally then, as goes the head so goes the body. Or to say it another way, the Church ought to submit to the Head and only go where Jesus leads.

Body is used as a designation to refer to the universal Church as well as the local church. In Col. 1:24 Paul shows us the universal nature of the body of Christ saying, “Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am filling up what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions for the sake of His body, that is, the Church…” Paul’s suffering in his own flesh is a witness and presentation of Christ’s sufferings to the universal Church, or body of Christ. Ephesians 4:11-12 is an example of this designation being used to refer to the local church. “And He gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers, to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ…” In context, Paul is referring to the gifts Jesus gave to the Church after His ascension. Though there are ways in which we can clearly see the universal Church being spoken of here, especially as we continue into v13-15, we also clearly see ordinary activity of the local church too. How? Where is it that the saints, the body of Christ, are equipped to do the work of ministry? In the local church. Where do those saints exercise these work of ministry once they’re equipped to do so? In local churches all around the world. So held within the image of the Church as the body of Christ we see the necessity of unity in that all the members ought to be striving toward the same goals with the same purpose. We see the activity of the local church to equip the saints for the work of ministry, and we see the grand scope of the universal Church as the context into which those saints are sent to do the work of ministry. The body of Christ is indeed simultaneously the most diverse and unified group of people on the planet.

The Church as a Bride

One of the most famous images of the Church is one of the most intimate images given in Scripture. This of course, the Church as the Bride of Christ. Throughout the Old Testament God refers to Israel as His unfaithful and adulterous wife. As we cross over into the New Testament we see it’s the Church who, though unfaithful like Israel, has a husband in Christ that is ever faithful. Ephesians 5:25-27 says, “Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave Himself up for her, that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, so that He might present the church to Himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish.” It may seem strange to some of you that as believers we all have a common husband already in Christ, but this is how the Bible encourages us to think of ourselves in relation to Jesus. We are His bride and He is our husband. We submit to Him and He lovingly leads us. He labors in us and through us to see to it that we are made more and more holy like He is until the day we see Him face to face.

That day will be a day unlike any other, and we’ll realize that every wedding ceremony we’ve ever seen or been in was just a foretaste of the greater marriage to come. Rev. 21:2-4 says, “And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, ‘Behold, the dwelling place of God is with man. He will dwell with them, and they will be His people, and God Himself will be with them as their God. He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.’” This is the marriage supper of the Lamb, when we will be presented holy, spotless, and flawless to our Lord Jesus. We will forever be His people and He will forever be our God.

The Church as the Pillar and Buttress of the Truth

Lastly, in 1 Tim. 3:14-15 Paul makes use of an image of the Church we don’t often speak of. In that passage he tells Timothy, “I hope to come to you soon, but I am writing these things to you so that, if I delay, you may know how one ought to behave in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, a pillar and buttress of the truth.” To say the Church is a pillar and buttress of the truth is to say the Church is the guardian, the defender, the protector, and the citadel of the truth in all ages against all those who oppose the gospel. This has a twofold application. As the Church defends the truth by proclaiming the truth unapologetically, the Church also protects the truth by teaching it to the Church every time it gathers together.

But what truth is the Church to guard, defend, and protect? Paul mentions this truth in the very next verse in 1 Tim. 3:16 when he says, “Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in the flesh, vindicated by the Spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed among the nations, believed on in the world, taken up in glory.” This is none other than one of the earliest and most concise summarizes of the work of Christ we have. Some people even think this was one the early creeds of the Church. All that to say, the truth the Church is to guard, defend, protect, teach, spread, rejoice in, and treasure above all things is the gospel itself. In a day when deep convictions about religious beliefs are seen as arrogant, narrow-minded, and even antiquated do you see the calling the Church has from Scripture? She is called and equipped by God to be an institution of proclamation, an bastion of propagation, that preaches the truth of gospel of God from the whole counsel of the Word of God to everyone soul that will hear.

The building, the body, and the bride of Christ. Called out of this world to boldly and lovingly proclaim the truth of God to this world. This is the Church.

The Person Of Christ

The Person of Christ authored by Donald Macleod is one book in a series of theological textbooks focused on the main themes of Christian theology. 

The Person Of Christ deals with the doctrines of Christology and Soteriology. Donald Macleod (MA, University of Glasgow; DD, Westminster Theological Seminary), is now retired, has served as professor and chair of systematic theology at the Free Church of Scotland College in Edinburgh and also as the school’s principal. He pastored at Kilmallie Free Church for six years and also served at Patrick Highland Free Church, a bilingual congregation in Glasgow, Scotland. He is well known as a previous editor of The Monthly Record of the Free Church and as a columnist in the West Highland Free Press and The Observer newspaper. He has written many other books on theology and particularly Christology more recently. Some of his other books include, Christ Crucified: Understanding the Atonement, A Faith to Live By: Understanding Christian Doctrine, and Jesus is Lord: Christology Yesterday and Today.

The Person of Christ with its ten chapters is broken into two parts. Part one “Very God of Very God”, from the Gospels to Nicea, deals with the development of Christology over the years and the many heresies that came along. The first five chapters give a defense of the Deity of Christ, while showing that the Gospels point to the real Jesus. “The Virgin Birth,” “The Pre-existence of Christ,” “Christ, the Son of God,” “The Jesus of History,” and “The Christ of Faith: ‘Very God of Very God.'”

The Second half titled “Very God, Very Man”, To Chalcedon & Beyond, conclude the last five chapters. “Very God, Very Man,” harking at Chalcedon, in chapters on “The Incarnation,” “Chalcedon: ‘Perfect in Godhead, Perfect in Manhood,'” “Kenosis: Making Himself Nothing,” “The Sinlessness of Christ,” and “No Other Name: The Uniqueness of Christ in Modern Times.” He then closes out with a short “Epilogue”.

Part two of the book tackles the incarnation and how Chalcedon defines and defends it against Docetism, Apollinarianism, and Arianism. While defending the incarnation he shows how the Chalcedon “affirmed the unipersonality of Christ and the Authenticity and perfection of both his natures, human and divine”, (184). He goes on to show how the Chalcedon doctrine refutes heresies like Nestorianism and Monophysitism.

In chapter five Macleod stresses, “The single most important statement was the declaration of the Council of Nicea (325) that Christ, as the Son of God, was homoousios (consubstantial) with the Father” (121). Jesus is God in essence, yet he is distinct from the Father and the Spirit. The purpose of the Council of Nicea was to combat Arianism. He goes on to say, “the future of Christianity as a religion was at stake. If Christ were not God, he could not be the revelation of God. If Christ were not God, men had not been redeemed by God. If Christ were not God, believers were not united to God. Above all, if Christ were not God, Christians had no right to worship him. Indeed, if they did so, they were reverting to pagan superstition and idolatry” (123).

Macleod gives a whole Chapter dedicated to the Kenotic theory. He sets out the arguments of the critics with responses to them. He then shows us True Kenosis. As he quotes Donald Mackinnion, “It is the notion of kenosis which more than any other single notion points to the deepest sense of the mystery of the incarnation” (212). He ends in his epilogue with a challenge to up hold and proclaim the words of Chalcedon in a world of new questions and different languages. The need for the “Chalcedon formula” (264) is of great importance in communicating Christology to the generations to come.

Macleod’s main theme through out the whole book is that the gospels show us the real Jesus. That the creeds are faithful to the gospels and that their main concern is to show that Jesus is the incarnate Son of God. Every generation has the task to uphold the purity and integrity of Christology. Through out the book Macleod in each chapter shows the reader in church history someone will always question the person of Christ. Not only does he show how the church fathers refuted heresies of the past but also he gives clear expositions of Scripture to uphold Christology.  

He is not too technical in his exegesis of Scripture but his thoughts are deep and sometimes lofty. The reader can get trapped into too much detail and does not read easily at times. Each chapter is polemical when he critiques those who attack historic Christian orthodoxy. 

Macleod gives his argument to his readers that Holy Scripture, and the gospel writers are most qualified to give us access to the real Jesus. His whole approach is, “I am starting from faith, convinced before I put my pen to paper (or finger to keyboard) that Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God. This, it seems to me, is also where the gospels start” (16). Jesus is different and not just merely a man. As Macleod says, “He is different because he is God incarnate” (17).

Macleod argues that only the Jesus of the New Testament can explain the Christ of faith. Jesus’ own understanding of his divine status is central for the Church. How central is this? “Christianity, as a religion, depends on the deity of Christ as it does no other single doctrine” (117). He goes on further to drive home the point, “The central feature of Christianity is (and always has been) the worship of Jesus. Any credible account of its origins must explain the rise of such worship. Where can that be found except in Jesus’ understanding of himself as divine? To reject that is not only to deprive Christian worship of its legitimacy but to convict the church itself of self-deception and duplicity” (119).

The truth of this and its implications are vitally important: “The bottom line here is that Jesus of Nazareth saw himself as the Son of God. Whatever we do afterwards, we must first decide what to do with this. If he was correct, we must fall down and worship him. If he was not correct, we must crucify him” (118).

To reinforce his thesis he gives the readers the creeds such as the Nicea and Chalcedon, and insights from Church fathers such as Tertullian, Clement, and Ireanus. He gives many more references to people of Church history to uphold his thesis. He uses their own logic; gives clarity to their questions, gives ear to strong points while debating them, and even gives credit where credit is due. Macleod does a good Job at showing that the progression of Christology was an authentic progression. Councils were necessary for heresies, but the Christology of our day is biblical and historical. It is orthodoxy because it hinges on apostolic understanding.

Macleod introduces us to “Anglican Unitarians”, (241) as he calls the group. They include John A.T. Robinson, G. K. W. Lampe, Don Cupitt, John Knox, Norman Pittenger, Denis Nineham and Maurice Wiles. He argues that they deny key features of historic orthodoxy. There are five points he makes on how they fall from historic orthodoxy. Macleod says that they ultimately deny the incarnation, the pre-existence of Christ, and the post-existence of Christ, Traditional Trinitarian formulations, and the uniqueness of Christ. It is striking that most of all these theologians profess to be Christian yet deny historical orthodoxy.

He even admits that “The Logical path for such scholars to follow would be to renounce Christianity altogether since on their premises it is impossible to regard Jesus as Lord or to worship him as God” (242-243). Though the student of Christology learns much about Christ by understanding what Christ is not. As Macleod shows modern scholarship views that as negative and tries to develop more of a positive statement. Sadly, most attempts come from the camp of liberalism and are more or less detached from the Chalcedonian creed.

The Church will always need those that have gone before and paved the way for purity and clarity in doctrine. Scripture is always the foundation and authority we go by in our understanding of God. Having a low view of Scripture gives us no ground to stand on. Scripture is how we look face to face with Christ. Macleod makes the case that to departfrom Scripture brings dangerous consequences. He is strong at giving us that ground to stand on. Though nothing new is under the sun heresy is still the same heresy yet repacked and called new. It is our job to be good bereans of Scripture and to test the claims of theologians who claim they have something new.

Macleod shows us how important church history is and how we should let the creeds and confessions give us barriers. Looking back and studying them can give us the right starting point on discussing Christology. We need to get Christ right in order to get the gospel right. Christianity hinges on the person of Christ. We need not forget that everyone has a view of Christ but is it Christ of Scripture? I think Macleod in his book shows just how important that is.

The benefits of reading this book have given me a passion to read more in Christology. Not only has it given me more appreciation for the study on the doctrine of Christ. It has given me more appreciation for studying church history. To that I am truly grateful.

Though Macleod’s book may be dated on dealing with contemporary Christology it is a handy resource for the student and the pastor. Some areas in the book can be dull but every Christian needs a resource on Christology. I would also argue that ever Christian would benefit greatly in studying church history to which this book can give a good starting point. The student can benefit from a wealth of terminology and vocabulary from this book. Macleod’s book would be a good reference for reading alongside more modern reformed works on Christology. The book in itself is not a primer on Christology yet it is a solid read.

We Are Now and One Day Will Be…Glorified

We began our study on soteriology, the doctrine of salvation, several weeks ago. Today we bring it to its conclusion by looking at the final doctrine in the ordo salutis, glorification. And when covering glorification there is one text we must go to, Romans 8:28-30. Here Paul says, “And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to His purpose. For those whom He foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, in order that He might be the firstborn among many brothers. And those whom He predestined He also called, and those whom He called He also justified, and those whom He justified He also glorified.”

This passage, known to many as the golden chain of salvation, runs the whole gamut of the ordo salutis. The ESV Study Bible mentions this in it’s notes for v30 saying, “The chain that begins with the word ‘foreknew’ in v29 cannot be broken.” John Murray, in his commentary on John, says, “Three actions are mentioned, calling, justification, and glorification. There is an unbreakable bond between these three actions…serving the apostle’s purpose in delineating the divine plan of salvation from its fount in the love of God to its consummation in the glorification of the sons of God.” Although Paul describes our glorification in the past tense (glorified) it is intended to teach us a double meaning: we have already been glorified in Christ and we will be glorified in Christ when our salvation has been completed.

As a young boy and up through my teenage years our family vacationed in Sarasota, FL during the 4th of July weekend. We would eat at the same beachside diner every year, enjoy live music, we’d dance, shoot off our own fireworks, chase tiny crabs by the water with flashlights, and finish the evening by watching the firework show put on by a nearby beach resort. Most of you have seen similar firework displays, where there is all sorts of various booms, sounds, colors, and sizes of fireworks all leading up to the grand finale when they would set off hundreds of fireworks at the same time. This grand finale was always the highlight of the evening for me. The loud blasts, color displays, and sheer volume of lights in the sky were captivating to behold. In the same (but greater!) manner, the doctrine of glorification is the grand finale of our salvation, where all that God has done in our hearts for His glory and our good comes to its completion, He gives us resurrection bodies, and we enjoy Him forever and ever.

Romans 8 shows us this in a few others places. After speaking of our adoption and union with Christ 8:17 says, “…and if children than heirs–heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided that we suffer with Him in order that we may also be glorified with Him.” Romans 8 presents the Christian life as a life of suffering, but in the midst of that suffering we must be reminded of a few things. Namely, that our suffering in this life is a sharing in the sufferings of Christ. This is not just a statement intended for those who die a martyr’s death. No, this is for the whole Church. By sharing in the suffering of Christ, I think Paul means that our Christian lives, which are lived out in this fallen world, will cause us to bump up against and inwardly feel much fallenness and suffering. Paul spoke of always carrying around in his body the death of Christ, and we who believe know what this is like living in a fallen world as fallen and simultaneously redeemed people. Paul’s promise here in v17 is that if we share in His suffering (which all Christians do to varying degrees) we need to remember that we’ll one day share in His glory. Or to put it like Paul does, one day we’ll be glorified with Him. This causes a certain change about a believer’s life. We see it in v18 when Paul continues saying, “For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us.”

First, see a confirmation of v17 here. That phrase ‘this present time’ is why I interpret v17 to mean suffering as a born again creature in a fallen world. Again, the suffering Paul has in mind is suffering brought to Christians during ‘this present time.’

Second, do you see how Paul’s hope of a future glory changes how he encounters the suffering in the present? He thinks of this current suffering as something not even worth comparing with what’s to come. He says similar things in 2 Corinthians 4 when he speaks of how the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ being held in jars of clay like you and I causes us to not lose heart. “So we do not lose heart. Though our outer self is wasting away, our inner self is being renewed day by day. For this light and momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison, as we look not to the things that are seen but to the things that are unseen. For the things that are seen are transient, but the things that are unseen are eternal” (2 Cor. 4:16-18). In both Romans 8 and 2 Corinthians 4 Paul uses comparative language. Comparing the sufferings of this present world with the glory that’s to come. And his conclusion in both of these passages is the same: because of the eternal weight of glory that’s awaiting us, these present sufferings are two things: 1) they’re not even worth comparing with that glory, and 2) they’re only light and momentary afflictions.

In the verses that follow (Romans 8:20-27) Paul continues to expand on this saying the whole creation, and we ourselves (who are helped by the Holy Spirit) groan inwardly as we eagerly await our adoptions as sons. Then into that context, we hear the stunning promise of the golden chain, “Those whom He predestined He also called, and those whom He called He also justified, and those whom He justified He also glorified.” There are no dropouts!

Let’s go further.

After the stunning promise of a secure and sure glorification is no surprise that Paul rejoices in v31-39 with some of the most well known and celebrated passages in the book of Romans. “What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? He who did not spare His own Son but gave Him up for us all, how will He not also with Him graciously give us all things? Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies. Who is to condemn? Christ Jesus is the one who died—more than that, who was raised—who is at the right hand of God, who indeed is interceding for us. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? As it is written, “For Your sake we are being killed all the day long; we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered.” No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us. For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

Can it get any better? Indeed it cannot. Thus, we long for the day when this glorification, when this completion of God’s salvation in us will bring us to the city we have sought. The city whose maker and builder is God. We long for the day when we’ll be ancient in our youth again, when we’ll run and not grow faint, when we’ll sing and not grow weary!

The truth is this: God has saved us. By grace alone, in Christ alone, through faith alone, to the glory of God alone – and yet though He’s saved us, we are not now what we shall soon be.